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Recent Approaches in the Extraction of Citrus Metabolites

[ Vol. 8 , Issue. 2 ]

Author(s):

Fakhru-Nisa, Tehreem Tahir, Muhammad Ashfaq*, Mirza Imran Shahzad* and Syeda Taiba Bukhari   Pages 85 - 95 ( 11 )

Abstract:


The review summarizes the recent (2016-2019) practical applications of novel extraction methods for Citrus metabolite extraction, such as microwave-assisted (MAE), ultrasound-assisted (UAE), super-critical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) and enzyme-assisted extraction (EAE) with the aim to compare efficiencies based on the criteria of enhanced (%) yield, cost-effectiveness, reproducibility, eco-friendliness, time/energy consumed and industrial scale application. It was found that supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SC-CO2) is the most successful and scaled-up technique when compared to MAE, UAE, Soxhlet and EAE, following the trend: SC-CO2 > EAE > UAE > MAE. However, other novel approaches, including pulse-electric field (PEF), sub-critical water extraction (SWE), solarenergy assisted extraction (SE) and molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs), that have not been well explored for Citrus bioactives extraction, have the potential to be coupled with conventional as well as contemporary methods leading to an innovative hypothetical scaled-up design.

Keywords:

Citrus, phytochemicals, microwave, ultrasound, secondary metabolites, enzyme.

Affiliation:

Department of Biochemistry & Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Baghdad-uljadeed Campus, Bahawalpur 63100, Department of Biochemistry & Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Baghdad-uljadeed Campus, Bahawalpur 63100, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Baghdad-ul-jadeed Campus, Bahawalpur 63100, Department of Biochemistry & Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Baghdad-uljadeed Campus, Bahawalpur 63100, Department of Biochemistry & Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Baghdad-uljadeed Campus, Bahawalpur 63100

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