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Xanthine Oxidase Perspective in Human Health

[ Vol. 9 , Issue. 4 ]

Author(s):

Santwona Dash, Sabita Pattanayak, Barsarani Jena, Manasa K. Panda and Yengkhom D. Singh*   Pages 255 - 262 ( 8 )

Abstract:


Xanthine oxidase (XO) is an essential enzyme in catalyzing the hydroxylation of hypoxanthine to xanthine and uric acid in the kidney. Excessive formation of uric acid can lead to hyperuricemia (HUA), a condition caused by excess uric acid contamination in the blood. HUA is responsible for various diseases in the body, such as gout, cardiovascular, and renal failure. It is also associated with numerous inflammatory diseases and their metabolic pathways, including tumors, chronic hypoxia, renal injury, and hypertension. XO is a superoxide producing enzyme usually confined to lungs, liver, and blood serum. Blood assay and diagnostics for XO help in a better understanding of its associated diseases in the human body. The mechanism of how XO is released in the bloodstream is a matter of debate in medical science. In the current review article, we comprehensively discussed the role of XO in human health, inhibitors, and their regulation, isolation, and extractions of inhibitors from plants, types, and their activities towards the human health perspective are described.

Keywords:

Xanthine oxidase, hyperuricemia, bioactive molecules, inhibitors, enzymes, human health.

Affiliation:

Department of Botany, School of Applied Sciences, Centurion University of Technology and Management, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, Department of Botany, School of Applied Sciences, Centurion University of Technology and Management, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, Department of Botany, School of Applied Sciences, Centurion University of Technology and Management, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, Department of Environment & Sustainability, CSIR- Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, Bhubaneswar-751013, Department of Post Harvest Technology, College of Horticulture and Forestry, Central Agricultural University, Pasighat, Arunachal Pradesh-791102

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